One of the subject this semester is Management Accounting, and I have to make an essay about Environmental Cost. I have to make a case, so I decided to choose BP Oil Spill 2010 topics. And here is the essay:
As one of the subject this semester, Financial Statement Analysis, I have to analyze some company financial statements. So I decided to analyze Perusahaan Gas Negara (PGN) financial statements, the data is from PGN Annual Report 2014. And as the guide book, I use Charles H Gibson’s book, Financial Statement Analysis 11th edition.
so hereby I attach my ask. But as your note, this tasks is not yet been reviewed. So I dont know whether its correct or not lol.
This Summer on June to July 2015 I’ve just done Internship in Bank Indonesia. It was the requirements from my college. It was an unforgettable experience. So many things I learned there. I was placed on Divisi Analisis dan Pelaporan Keuangan (Division of Analysis and Financial Reporting) – Departemen Keuangan Intern (Finance Department). For more details about the activity, go check the file attached in this post.
One of the components of Capital Market are Bonds. Yes we might be oftenly heard the word Bonds. But what is Bonds? What kind of Bonds that exists? How to Calculate it? So here it is the brief explanations about bonds as cite from Indonesia Stock Exchange website, link: http://www.idx.co.id/en-us/home/information/forinvestor/bond.aspx
Type of Bonds traded in Indonesia Stock Exchange:
- Corporate Bonds: Bond issued by state owned company or private company.
- Government Bonds: Bond issued by the central government.
- Municipal Bond: Bond issued by province/district government for financing public utilities project.
- Retail Bonds: Bond traded in a bourse trading mechanism as applied in stock trading with relatively small nominal value.
- Sharia Bond: Bond which has yield refers to profit sharing of the bond issuer but not relay on interest based. In term of its yield, there are two type of calculating, as follows:
- Sharia Mudharabah Bond is a sharia bond with initial contract base on profit sharing so that investor may receive income after knowing revenue of the bond issuer.
- Sharia Ijarah Bond is a sharia bond uses such as leasing contract so that ijarah’s fee (like a coupon) will be in fix rate and it can be known or counted from the initial issued.
The different type of coupon:
- Zero Coupon Bonds: Bond which has no coupon along the period of its time maturity, but, Bond issuer will pay its principal on the maturity date.
- Coupon Bonds: Bond which has a coupon which is able to convert in cash money on specified period of time according to the issuer’s provision.
- Fixed Coupon Bonds: Bond which has fix amount of coupon rate from the time of initial issued until maturity date. Fix coupon bond will be paid at specific period of time.
- Floating Coupon Bonds: Bond which has coupon rate that is usually keep on adjusting to the reference rate in the market, such as weighted average of interest rate of average time deposit (ATD) in the biggest government bank or private bank.
- Mixed rate bonds: Bond has a fix coupon rate only for certain period of time (e.g. 1- 3 year) then it will be floating follow the market rate.
The characteristics of Bonds:
- Nominal Value (Face Value) Bond issued by corporation, whether it is a government corporation or private corporation.
- Coupon (the Interest Rate) is the interest value occasionally received by the bondholders (usually every 3 or 6 months). Bond’s coupon is asserted in annual percentages.
- Tenor is the date when the bondholders will receive principal payment of the bond. The maturity date of each bond varies from 365 days to more than 5 years. A bond close to maturity date has lower risk than a bond that is far from maturity. It is because a bond that close to the maturity date is easier to predict. In general the longer the maturity dates of a bond, the higher the coupon/interest.
- Issuer Company knowing the bond issuer well is an important factor in retains bond investing. To measure the default risk (possibility of an issuer failed to make coupon or principal payment on the determined time), an investor should pay attention on the rating of each bond issued by official rating institution such as PEFINDO or Kasnic Credit Rating Indonesia.
Different to stock’s price that is expressed in currency unit (rupiah amount), bond’s price is expressed in percentages (%) unit that is percentages of its nominal value. There are 3 (three) possibility of the bond’s price offered to the market:
- Par Value Bond’s price is the same as its nominal value. Example: A bond with nominal value Rp 50 million sold at price 100%, the bond’s value is 100% x Rp 50 million = Rp 50 million.
- At Premium Bond’s price is higher than its nominal value. Example: A bond with nominal value Rp 50 million sold at price 102%, the bond’s value is 102% x Rp 50 million = Rp 51 million.
- At discount Bond’s price is lower than its nominal value. Example: Bond with nominal value Rp 50 million sold at price 98%, the bond’s value is 98% x Rp 50 million = Rp 49 million.
Return on bond investment will be stated as yield that is source of income for the investors who allocate their money to buy a retail bond/corporate bond/government bond. One of the important thing that is to be considered before they decide to invest in bond is the amount of bond yield as a measurement tool to know the annually rate of return.
There are two terminologies in calculating yield, current yield and yield to maturity.
- Currrent yield that is yield calculated base on the amount of coupon receive for one year to its bond price.
Current yield = CouponPriceExample:Bond issuer “PT. XYZ”, gives coupon rate 17% p.a. to their bond holder while bond traded at 98% with nominal value Rp 1.000.000.000, then its current yield as follows:Current Yield = Rp 170.000.000 atau 17%Rp 980.000.000 98%= 17.34%
- While a Yield to maturity (YTM) is return on investment or income will be obtained by investors if they hold bond until its due date. Formula of YTM which is often used by bond participant, as follows:
YTM approximation = C + R – Pn x 100%R + P2Explaination:C = cuponn = period of time to maturity (in year)R = redemption valueP = purchasing valueExample:Bond XYZ was bought on September, 5-2003 at 94.25% with coupon rate 16% which will be paid quarterly and its maturity date on July, 12, 2007. What is YTM approximation of Bond XYZ?C = 16%n = 3 year, 10 month, 7 day or equal to 3.853 yearR = 94.25%P = 100%YTM approximation = 16 + 100 – 94.253.853= 100 + 94.252= 18.01 %
Salah satu komponen dari Pasar Modal Obligasi. Ya kita mungkin sering mendengar Obligasi kata. Tapi apa Obligasi? Apa jenis Obligasi yang ada? Bagaimana cara menghitungnya? Jinilah penjelasan singkat tentang obligasi dikutip dari situs Bursa Efek Indonesia, link: http://www.idx.co.id/id-id/beranda/informasi/bagiinvestor/obligasi.aspx
Obligasi merupakan surat utang jangka menengah-panjang yang dapat dipindahtangankan yang berisi janji dari pihak yang menerbitkan untuk membayar imbalan berupa bunga pada periode tertentu dan melunasi pokok utang pada waktu yang telah ditentukan kepada pihak pembeli obligasi tersebut.
Obligasi memiliki beberapa jenis yang berbeda, yaitu:
- Dilihat dari sisi penerbit:
- Corporate Bonds: obligasi yang diterbitkan oleh perusahaan, baik yang berbentuk badan usaha milik negara (BUMN), atau badan usaha swasta.
- Government Bonds: obligasi yang diterbitkan oleh pemerintah pusat.
- Municipal Bond: obligasi yang diterbitkan oleh pemerintah daerah untut membiayai proyek-proyek yang berkaitan dengan kepentingan publik (public utility).
- Dilihat dari sistem pembayaran bunga:
- Zero Coupon Bonds: obligasi yang tidak melakukan pembayaran bunga secara periodik. Namun, bunga dan pokok dibayarkan sekaligus pada saat jatuh tempo.
- Coupon Bonds: obligasi dengan kupon yang dapat diuangkan secara periodik sesuai dengan ketentuan penerbitnya.
- Fixed Coupon Bonds: obligasi dengan tingkat kupon bunga yang telah ditetapkan sebelum masa penawaran di pasar perdana dan akan dibayarkan secara periodik.
- Floating Coupon Bonds: obligasi dengan tingkat kupon bunga yang ditentukan sebelum jangka waktu tersebut, berdasarkan suatu acuan (benchmark) tertentu seperti average time deposit (ATD) yaitu rata-rata tertimbang tingkat suku bunga deposito dari bank pemerintah dan swasta.
- Dilihat dari hak penukaran/opsi:
- Convertible Bonds: obligasi yang memberikan hak kepada pemegang obligasi untuk mengkonversikan obligasi tersebut ke dalam sejumlah saham milik penerbitnya.
- Exchangeable Bonds: obligasi yang memberikan hak kepada pemegang obligasi untuk menukar saham perusahaan ke dalam sejumlah saham perusahaan afiliasi milik penerbitnya.
- Callable Bonds: obligasi yang memberikan hak kepada emiten untuk membeli kembali obligasi pada harga tertentu sepanjang umur obligasi tersebut.
- Putable Bonds: obligasi yang memberikan hak kepada investor yang mengharuskan emiten untuk membeli kembali obligasi pada harga tertentu sepanjang umur obligasi tersebut.
- Dilihat dari segi jaminan atau kolateralnya:
- Secured Bonds: obligasi yang dijamin dengan kekayaan tertentu dari penerbitnya atau dengan jaminan lain dari pihak ketiga. Dalam kelompok ini, termasuk didalamnya adalah:
- Guaranteed Bonds: Obligasi yang pelunasan bunga dan pokoknya dijamin denan penangguangan dari pihak ketiga
- Mortgage Bonds: obligasi yang pelunasan bunga dan pokoknya dijamin dengan agunan hipotik atas properti atau asset tetap.
- Collateral Trust Bonds: obligasi yang dijamin dengan efek yang dimiliki penerbit dalam portofolionya, misalnya saham-saham anak perusahaan yang dimilikinya.
- Unsecured Bonds: obligasi yang tidak dijaminkan dengan kekayaan tertentu tetapi dijamin dengan kekayaan penerbitnya secara umum.
- Secured Bonds: obligasi yang dijamin dengan kekayaan tertentu dari penerbitnya atau dengan jaminan lain dari pihak ketiga. Dalam kelompok ini, termasuk didalamnya adalah:
- Dilihat dari segi nilai nominal:
- Konvensional Bonds: obligasi yang lazim diperjualbelikan dalam satu nominal, Rp 1 miliar per satu lot.
- Retail Bonds: obligasi yang diperjual belikan dalam satuan nilai nominal yang kecil, baik corporate bonds maupun government bonds.
- Dilihat dari segi perhitungan imbal hasil:
- Konvensional Bonds: obligasi yang diperhitungan dengan menggunakan sistem kupon bunga.
- Syariah Bonds: obligasi yang perhitungan imbal hasil dengan menggunakan perhitungan bagi hasil. Dalam perhitungan ini dikenal dua macam obligasi syariah, yaitu:
- Obligasi Syariah Mudharabah merupakan obligasi syariah yang menggunakan akad bagi hasil sedemikian sehingga pendapatan yang diperoleh investor atas obligasi tersebut diperoleh setelah mengetahui pendapatan emiten.
- Obligasi Syariah Ijarah merupakan obligasi syariah yang menggunakan akad sewa sedemikian sehingga kupon (fee ijarah) bersifat tetap, dan bisa diketahui/diperhitungkan sejak awal obligasi diterbitkan.
- Nilai Nominal (Face Value) adalah nilai pokok dari suatu obligasi yang akan diterima oleh pemegang obligasi pada saat obligasi tersebut jatuh tempo.
- Kupon (the Interest Rate) adalah nilai bunga yang diterima pemegang obligasi secara berkala (kelaziman pembayaran kupon obligasi adalah setiap 3 atau 6 bulanan) Kupon obligasi dinyatakan dalam annual prosentase.
- Jatuh Tempo (Maturity) adalah tanggal dimana pemegang obligasi akan mendapatkan pembayaran kembali pokok atau Nilai Nominal obligasi yang dimilikinya. Periode jatuh tempo obligasi bervariasi mulai dari 365 hari sampai dengan diatas 5 tahun. Obligasi yang akan jatuh tempo dalam waktu 1 tahun akan lebih mudah untuk di prediksi, sehingga memilki resiko yang lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan obligasi yang memiliki periode jatuh tempo dalam waktu 5 tahun. Secara umum, semakin panjang jatuh tempo suatu obligasi, semakin tinggi Kupon / bunga nya.
- Penerbit / Emiten (Issuer) Mengetahui dan mengenal penerbit obligasi merupakan faktor sangat penting dalam melakukan investasi Obligasi Ritel. Mengukur resiko / kemungkinan dari penerbit obigasi tidak dapat melakukan pembayaran kupon dan atau pokok obligasi tepat waktu (disebut default risk) dapat dilihat dari peringkat (rating) obligasi yang dikeluarkan oleh lembaga pemeringkat seperti PEFINDO atau Kasnic Indonesia.
Berbeda dengan harga saham yang dinyatakan dalam bentuk mata uang, harga obligasi dinyatakan dalam persentase (%), yaitu persentase dari nilai nominal.
Ada 3 (tiga) kemungkinan harga pasar dari obligasi yang ditawarkan, yaitu:
- Par (nilai Pari): Harga Obligasi sama dengan nilai nominal Misal: Obligasi dengan nilai nominal Rp 50 juta dijual pada harga 100%, maka nilai obligasi tersebut adalah 100% x Rp 50 juta = Rp 50 juta.
- at premium (dengan Premi): Harga Obligasi lebih besar dari nilai nominal Misal: Obligasi dengan nilai nominal RP 50 juta dijual dengan harga 102%, maka nilai obligasi adalah 102% x Rp 50 juta = Rp 51 juta.
- at discount (dengan Discount): Harga Obligasi lebih kecil dari nilai nominal Misal: Obligasi dengan nilai nominal Rp 50 juta dijual dengan harga 98%, maka nilai dari obligasi adalah 98% x Rp 50 juta = Rp 49 juta.
Pendapatan atau imbal hasil atau returnyang akan diperoleh dari investasi obligasi dinyatakan sebagai yield, yaitu hasil yang akan diperoleh investor apabila menempatkan dananya untuk dibelikan obligasi. Sebelum memutuskan untuk berinvestasi obligasi, investor harus mempertimbangkan besarnya yield obligasi, sebagai faktor pengukur tingkat pengembalian tahunan yang akan diterima.
Ada 2 (dua) istilah dalam penentuan yield yaitu current yield dan yield to maturity.
- Currrent yield adalah yield yang dihitung berdasrkan jumlah kupon yang diterima selama satu tahun terhadap harga obligasi tersebut.
Current yield = bunga tahunanharga obligasiContoh:Jika obligasi PT XYZ memberikan kupon kepada pemegangnya sebesar 17% per tahun sedangkan harga obligasi tersebut adalah 98% untuk nilai nominal Rp 1.000.000.000, maka:Current Yield = Rp 170.000.000 atau 17%Rp 980.000.000 98%= 17.34%
- Sementara itu yiled to maturity (YTM) adalah tingkat pengembalian atau pendapatan yang akan diperoleh investor apabila memiliki obligasi sampai jatuh tempo. Formula YTM yang seringkali digunakan oleh para pelaku adalah YTM approximation atau pendekatan nilai YTM, sebagai berikut:
YTM approximation = C + R – Pn x 100%R + P2Keterangan:C = kuponn = periode waktu yang tersisa (tahun)R = redemption valueP = harga pemeblian (purchase value)Contoh:Obligasi XYZ dibeli pada 5 September 2003 dengan harga 94.25% memiliki kupon sebesar 16% dibayar setiap 3 bulan sekali dan jatuh tempo pada 12 juli 2007. Berapakah besar YTM approximationnya?C = 16%n = 3 tahun 10 bulan 7 hari = 3.853 tahunR = 94.25%P = 100%YTM approximation = 16 + 100 – 94.253.853= 100 + 94.252= 18.01 %
After 3 days of a loong awaited and exhausting conferences, we finally come up with the resolutions of……………………… Nothing.. lol. Well it’s actually shows me that to achieve some solutions and resolutions in the real world are really that hard.
Basically there are 3 draft resolutions that been made in this conferences. Those 3 are actually have some similarity of the solutions for both party. But since there are some personal interests of some delegates, so no Draft Resolutions are being passes.
Now let’s take a look on 1 of the Draft Resolutions that being made by the Delegates of Australia, and I as delegates of UAE are sign this DR. Enjoy!
Committee: General Assembly – Special Political and Decolonization Committee
Topic: The Palestine-Israeli Conflict
Signatories: Ukraine, Palestine, India, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Belarus, Sudan, Iran, Syria, Afghanistan,
The General Assembly,
Recalling the Security Council Resolution 242, passed on 22 November 1967, which dictated the “land for peace” relationship and the need work for a just and lasting peace in the Middle East in which every State in the area can live in security,
Recalling also the Security Council Resolution 338 that stresses the implementation of Security Council Resolution 242 in all of its parts and decides that negotiations should start immediately between the parties concerned in order to create a just and durable peace in the Middle East,
Noting with concern the UN General Assembly Resolution 181 in 1947 “Future Government of Palestine” as a basis for the two-state solution accepted by the Palestinian National Council in 1988, and having examined the status of Jerusalem, Gaza Strip, Galilee, Negev Desert within it,
Having considered the Security Council Resolution 1559, on the importance of disarmament of all militias and Security Council Resolution 446 on 22 March 1979, Territories occupied by Israel which stresses that the Israeli settlements in Palestinian and other Arab territories occupied since 1967 have “no legal validation,”
Deeply Regretting the recent exchange of violent attacks done by Hamas, Israel Forces, and other militias that might threaten the ongoing cease fire or obstruct the negotiation between parties to produce long-lasting peace in Middle East,
Realizing that the ongoing negotiation has been met with unwillingness, especially from Arab sides, for the imbalance of member inside the negotiation table which is deemed to be unfair and will only result in the loss of Arabs,
Recognizing also that repatriation, resettlement, economic and social rehabilitation of the refugees and the payment of compensation cannot process before peace and security is ensured within the region,
Recognizing that several issues needs to be further negotiated in order to further progress the peace process in the Middle East,
- Recommends to all parties to hold restraints and refrain from any use of violence, both in conflictual areas or each other’s area, to not reply in the same, violent way for provocations coming from those that would not want to have peaceful middle east, and resort to good will behaviour and continue the ongoing cease fire and negotiation;
- Decides that the two-state solution should be the principle guidance of the talk upon sovereignty;
- Recommends the usage of SRS mechanism to be conducted in order to achieve peace that include:
- STOP settlement construction: as a prerequisite for peace talks to begin, there should be a condition that orders Israel to do complete cessation in all West Bank settlements. This cessation will last temporarily until the land swap agreement is reached and disengagement is completed;
- RECOMMENDS a new mechanism of peace negotiations should be established in the Middle East, with the name of 3-party talks that involves all key actors paramount to the current conflicts with the mechanism of:
Members and Forms
- This mechanism will include 3 Parties, Palestine, Israel, and United Nations;
- This mechanism works in flexible manner, with voluntary membership and without any push to produce any outcome in specific timeline with specific agenda in each of its meeting (further mechanism shall be elaborated below);
- Each party shall treat other party in the most respectful manner as important and key stakeholder in a mutual goal of creating long-lasting and fair peace in Middle East;
- The key objective of this mechanism is to give a fair avenue for all party to have discussion in regard with all issues that hampers the negotiation for peaceful resolution and negotiation, both within states (i.e. Palestine and Lebanon), or between states (i.e. Palestine and Israel, Lebanon and Israel);
- Another important objective for this mechanism is to have a long lasting and continuous peace talk, which will provide chances for party to negotiate without limitation and pressure, and to have an avenue of exchange of ideas without unnecessary violence;
- Representative of each party, selected internally by each party from respected candidates with proven qualification particularly in the matter of conflict resolution and peace talk, shall meet in tri-monthly interval, in specifically chosen place with neutral condition that will be suitable and comfortable for having discussion upon the matter;
- The meeting’s agenda shall be made in consensus prior to the meeting, in regard with the current condition of conflict and negotiation;
- Selected representatives shall have the equal chance of participation in the discussion, with respect to the sovereignty of each party (as a state or as an organization), with specific restraints to not hurt any parties during discussion that is happening;
- Discussion shall be directed to its utmost potential with efficient and effective discussion;
- Each decision and agreement that agreed upon in this talk will have an immidieate effect, according to the agreement made by all parties;
- United Nations shall enact as mediator inside the discussion, with specific tasks such as:
- Reminding all representative upon the agenda that has been set, and respect for the agenda;
- Showing information, gathered from special envoy of United Nations or from missions by Secretary General of UN in regard with the condition from neutral sides;
- Inviting and encouraging a party to re-join the talk, shall there be any party that refuse to continue with the negotiation;
- This mechanism shall not be ended without any substantial progress of peace talk with apparent potential of long-lasting effect, and after agreement of each country to stop this mechanism;
- Shall there be any party that refuse to continue with the discussion, this mechanism shall be suspended, with the focus on encouraging the party to re-join the mechanism;
- SETTLE land swap conditions and mechanisms: setting up a peace talk agenda that agreed by both countries and should include timeline and procedure of land swap;
- Stresses that the means of violence used by Hamas and Israel forces are unjustifiable and are to be stopped before the talk proceed, replaced with non-violent approaches to help integrate Gaza’s people with the help of UN and in accordance to Palestinian government:
- As part of elected government of Palestine, Fatah shall be helped to empower their political party in order to function with non-violent approach and functioning role of government in Gaza;
- Training of young generation of politician to be able to live with respect to non-violence in way of life should be given in the most appropriate way and conditioned with the need and situation within the community in Gaza;
- Realizes that Israel and Palestine is a key actor towards the creation of peace and stability in the Middle East, and therefore it is important to further invites Israel to the talk to further in 3-party talk recommend several important policies to be implemented;
- Recognition of both Israel and Palestine as a state by each other to fulfill the two state solution;
- Israel should, in respect to goodwill for the creation of peace in middle east through negotiation with Palestine, freeze every ongoing process of expansion of settlement in East Jerusalem;
- Israel should, in respect with the border created through UN resolution and for the safety of their own people, return to the post 1967 agreement;
- With regard to several rejection of Israeli citizen to move from the settlement, Israel should offer choices of being relocated to safer and better place within the territory of Israel, or to live under the administration of Palestine;
- Shall there be any Israeli that chooses to stay inside the already-made settlement, the government of Palestine shall treat all with respect, equally treated both in front of law and human rights, and to encourage inclusion of them with daily life among their neighbours;
Land Swap Mechanism
- Land swaps definition: a territorial exchange of land with a purpose for Israel to extend its recognized border to include certain settlement blocs near the old boundary. In exchange, the Palestinian would extend its control to certain areas inside pre-1967 Israel; these areas would in turn become part of a new Palestinian state;
- Conditions for land swap:
- A land-swap ratio of 1:1;
- Israeli annexation of areas that are home to approximately 70%–80% of settlers: to avoid settlers dislocation;
- Israeli annexation of a minimal amount of land acquired in 1967;
- No Palestinian dislocation: and the land is in reasonable quality;
- Measures that satisfy Israeli security concerns;
- A contiguous Palestinian state in the West Bank;
Status of Jerusalem
- Israel and Palestine should maintain respect to the ongoing peaceful division of Jerusalem between the two states, especially in respect to specific important religious sites for both states;
- Creation of special task force with the aim of normalization of the life inside Jerusalem, by helping both Israelis and Arabs to live together in peace and cooperation;
- Division of East Jerusalem to an equal 50-50 territory as agreed by both sides;
Blockade of Israel
- Israel should, in respect of humanity and relevant with the creation of sustainable peace in Middle East, loosen its tightly guarded border with Palestine in order to let more humanitarian aid to come into Palestine, especially to;
- In return, border shall be secured with the joint military mission of both Israel Defense Forces and Palestine National Army;
- With regard to loosening of border, it is recommended for society of Israel and Palestine to start on cooperation between each other, with the aim of not only better economic production and recovery, but for rebuilding trusts between society in grassroots level;
- The opening of the blockade should also involve more international NGOs that will help the recovery of Palestine from the previous conflicts and shortage of basic needs;
- Further reminds that the rehabilitation of humanitarian conditions is another important agenda and shall pursued be along with the process of the talks:
- The influx of Arab Refugees to this area should be regulated with joint committee between Israel and Palestine;
- Arab Refugees shall be tested of several qualifications to enter this region, with conditions such as:
- Proper preparation to live within the border of Palestine;
- Refugee shall not bring weaponry to this region, as a precaution of promoting peace and security within the region;
- Refugees that shall not receive enough cards to go in, should consult with the government of Palestine of the potential relocation in other place or cooperation with other countries in refugee condition;
- Recommends to UNSC to deploy Peacekeeping Forces on the border between Israel and Palestine if:
- The 3-party talks are failed to reach peace in 6 years;
- Attacks on border by both sides;
- Decides to remain seizured upon this matter.
And that’s all I can share with you guys. Hope these Articles are useful for you, either for Improving knowledge about Israel-Palestine conflict or Just give you a brief overview of Model United Nations.
Thankyou so much for reading this. Sincerely, AHF.
Well earlier this month, I joined my first ever MUN Conferences. It was a really great experiences because I learned a lot there. I learned how to Negotiate with others, learned how to make a draft resolutions, and etc..
For those who don’t know, Model United Nations, also known as Model UN or MUN, is an educational simulation and academic competition in which students learn about diplomacy, international relations, and the United Nations. MUN involves and teaches research, public speaking, debating, and writing skills, in addition to critical thinking, teamwork, and leadership abilities.Usually an extracurricular activity, some schools also offer Model UN as a class.
There was 1 topic that we discussed there. A loong unfinished and classic topic, the Israel-Palestine conflict. I represents the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Eventough I don’t contribute much to the conferences, I tried my best to solve this problems. It was a lil bit confusing at first because I have no idea what to do and I don’t know much about this topics. But as time goes by, I getting used to it and start to enjoy the conferences.
And now I want to share the study guide and the overview article about Israel-Palestine conflict who was made by the Org Comm, check this out!
Topic Area A : The Palestine-Israeli Conflict
Statement of The Problem
The history of the conflict in the Palestine area is even longer than that of UN itself. This is especially the case for the Fourth Committee, where this topic seems to be constantly a main point on the agenda. The conflict in the Middle East is one of the most important and most complex topics of the United Nations. Palestine has been of great religious and political importance throughout the history. It has been occupied by different regimes while, currently, Israel has dominant control over it after the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Palestinian movement is a bold development that responded to the ravaging of Palestinian civilian society during this third orchestrated massacre by Israel carried out against the people of Gaza in the last six years. It is not only that more than 70 percent of the Palestinian casualties were civilians. It needs to be understood that the entire Gaza population was locked into the combat zone during the 50-day onslaught, resulting in collective traumatization. The civilian population was denied the possibility of escaping the war zone by crossing the border to become refugees, usually the option of desperate last resort in conflicts of this character
As is currently evident in Syria and Iraq, tens of thousands have been seeking sanctuary by leaving the country. It is this most minimal form of humanitarian assistance that has been denied to all Gazans ever since Hamas started governing in mid-2007. UN speechess by
Mahmoud Abbas naturally expressed a different view of the situation. He placed great stress on the extent to which the Israeli intensive settlement process had destroyed any prospect of resolving the conflict through diplomacy. Abbas seemed to finally recognize what had been long evident to many Palestinians, that participating in Washington’s peace process operated mainly as a facilitator of Israeli settlement building plans, and was contrary to Palestine’s interest. He didn’t repudiate the Oslo approach altogether, but he did insist that direct negotiations could only be resumed if Israel unconditionally stopped further expansions of the settlements.
Abbas’ diplomacy moved in new directions: He submitted a formal request to the Secretary-General to forward to the Security Council for action on Palestine’s request for full membership in the organization and an end to Israeli occupation in three years. This move undoubtedly irritates Washington as it may force the US to use its veto, unless its diplomatic pressure can avoid nine affirmative votes in favor of the resolution. Notable for several reasons, avoided mentioning the most dramatic development: the new phase of the conflict. Israel is now openly moving towards a one-state solution that will involve incorporating the West Bank and consolidating control in East Jerusalem. Palestine is continuing its state-building project on the West Bank coupled with the realization that the political energy of its national movement has shifted to a combination of civil society activism and Hamas resilience and resistance. Whether this new phase will bring the two peoples any closer to a sustainable peace with justice seems highly unlikely.
At the end of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century, a large number of Jews purchased land from Ottoman landlords and established communities in the area which later became the British Mandate of Palestine. An economic boom quickly followed this settlement; this caused the population to grow, as not only Jewish people but also Muslim, Christian and Druze people migrated to the area. The victory of the Allies in the
First World War and consequent fall of the Ottoman Empire resulted in UK’s taking control of the area, which was carved into a mandate; an important issue surfaced when it was discovered that during the war the British promised control over the area to both the Jews and the Arabs.
In 1936 the British Government created the “Palestinian Royal Commission”, with the intent of reviewing and possibly amending the status of the British Palestinian Mandate. The commission suggested a partition of land between the Arabs and the Jews; the suggestion was however rejected by the Arabs, who insisted that they had been promised full independence, and that too many concessions were being made to the Israeli. This lead to a war which took place between 1936 and 1939 and to the United Nations Partition Plan (Resolution 181 from 29 November 1947). On 14 May 1948, the Zionist Organization announced through the voice of its president, David Ben-Gurion, the establishment of a Jewish state within the territory formerly under the British Mandate; a war quickly followed, after which Israel’s borders expanded, the Gaza Strip was annexed by Egypt and the West Bank by Jordan.Founded in 1964 as a result of the Arab League summit in Cairo, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is an organization which originally aimed at the creation of an Arab-Palestinian state in the territory of the British Mandate67, claiming that “The liberation of Palestine, from an international viewpoint, is a defensive act necessitated by the demands of self-defence as stated in the Charter of the United Nations”. It also contests the authority of Israel, stating that the Israeli do not constitute a nation since they are the citizens of their respective states and that they only share a Divine Religion.
Two wars occurred between the two sides, one in 1967 and the other in 1973, during which the Arabs were supported by the USSR and the Israeli by the USA. Several months after the 1967 war, the Arab League leaders met at the Khartoum Arab Summit and issued the “Three No’s” concerning the relation with Israel: no peace, no recognition, no negotiations
A very important point in the peace process took place during the Oslo accords, where The Oslo Accords where administration rights for most of the West Bank were given to Palestinians.
- The Palestine Royal Commission, was a British Royal Commission of Inquiry set out to propose changes to the British Mandate for Palestine following the six-month-long Arab general strike in Mandatory Palestine. The Commission was established at a time of increased violence; serious clashes between Arabs and Jews broke out in 1936 and were to last three years. The Commission was charged with determining the cause of the riots, and judging the grievances of both sides. The Commission found that the drafters of the Mandate could not have foreseen the advent of massive Jewish immigration, that they considered to due to “drastic restriction of immigration into the United States, the advent of the National Socialist Government in Germany in 1933 and the increasing economic pressure on the Jews in Poland.” They wrote that “The continued impact of a highly intelligent and enterprising race, backed by large financial resources, on a comparatively poor indigenous community, on a different cultural level, may produce in time serious reactions.” ( )British Policy in Palestine, 1937-38: From the Peel to the Woodhead Report, Bulletin of International News, Vol 15, No. 23 (Nov. 19, 1938). The Arab leadership in Palestine rejected the plan, arguing that the Arabs had been promised independence and granting rights to the Jews was a betrayal. The Arabs emphatically rejected the principle of awarding any territory to the Jews. With the Arab Higher Committee also lobbying, hundreds of delegates from across the Arab world convened at the Bloudan Conference in Syria on 8 September and wholly rejected both the partition and establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine
- On November 29, 1947, the United Nations General Assembly adopted Resolution 181 (also known as the Partition Resolution) that would divide Great Britain’s former Palestinian mandate into Jewish and Arab states in May 1948. Under the resolution, the area of religious significance surrounding Jerusalem would remain under international control administered by the United Nations.
- The United Nations resolution sparked conflict between Jewish and Arab groups within Palestine. Fighting began with attacks by irregular bands of Palestinian Arabs attached to local units of the Arab Liberation Army composed of volunteers from Palestine and neighboring Arab countries. These groups launched their attacks against Jewish cities, settlements, and armed forces. The Jewish forces were composed of the Haganah, the underground militia of the Jewish community in Palestine, and two small irregular groups, the Irgun, and LEHI. The goal of the Arabs was initially to block the Partition Resolution and to prevent the establishment of the Jewish state. The Jews, on the other hand, hoped to gain control over the territory allotted to them under the Partition Plan.
After Israel declared its independence on May 14, 1948, the fighting intensified with other Arab forces joining the Palestinian Arabs in attacking territory in the former Palestinian mandate. On the eve of May 14, the Arabs launched an air attack on Tel Aviv, which the Israelis resisted. This action was followed by the invasion of the former Palestinian mandate by Arab armies from Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, and Egypt.
Saudi Arabia sent a formation that fought under the Egyptian command. British trained forces from Transjordan eventually intervened in the conflict, but only in areas that had been designated as part of the Arab state under the United Nations Partition Plan and the corpus separatum of Jerusalem. After tense early fighting, Israeli forces, now under joint command, were able to gain the offensive. Though the United Nations brokered two cease- fires during the conflict, fighting continued into 1949.Israel and the Arab states did not reach any formal armistice agreements until February.
Though the United Nations brokered two cease-fires during the conflict, fighting continued into 1949. Israel and the Arab states did not reach any formal armistice agreements until February. Under separate agreements between Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt, Lebanon, Transjordan, and Syria, these bordering nations agreed to formal armistice lines. Israel gained some territory formerly granted to Palestinian Arabs under the United Nations resolution in 1947. Egypt and Jordan retained control over the Gaza Strip and the West Bank respectively. In 1964 the Palestinian Liberation Organization was created with the purpose of obtaining Palestine’s independence. Conceived by the Arab states at the first Arab summit meeting, the 1964 Arab League summit in Cairo, its stated goal was the “liberation of Palestine” through armed struggle.
The organization was called Palestinian Liberation Organization. The original PLO Charter (issued on 28 May 1964) stated that “Palestine with its boundaries that existed at the time of the British Mandate is an integral regional unit” and sought to “prohibit… the existence and activity” of Zionism. It also called for a right of return and self-determination for Palestinians. Palestinian statehood was not mentioned, although in 1974 the PLO called for an independent state in the territory of Mandate for Palestine. The group used multi-layered guerilla tactics to attack Israel from their bases in Jordan (including the West Bank, Lebanon, Egypt, Gaza, Strip, and Syria). In 1993, the PLO secretly negotiated the Oslo Accords with Israel. The accords were signed on 20 August 1993. There was a subsequent public ceremony in Washington D.C. on 13 September 1993. The Accords granted the Palestinians right to self-government on the Gaza Strip and the city of Jericho in the West Bank through the creation of the Palestinian Authority. Yasser Arafat was appointed head of the Palestinian Authority and a timetable for elections was laid out which saw Arafat elected president in January 1996, 18 months behind schedule The second Intifada known as the Oslo War was the second Palestinian Uprising – a period of intensified Palestinian-Israeli violence, which began in late September 2000 and ended in 2005. The death toll, including both military and civilian, is estimated to be about 3,000 Palestinians and 1,000 Israelis, as well as 64 foreigners. Both sides failed to respect the Oslo Accords. Another attempt to reach an agreement was made in July 11–25, 2000 Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David was held between United States president Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Chairman Yasser Arafat. The talks ultimately failed with both sides blaming the other. There were four principal obstacles to agreement: territory, Jerusalem and the Temple Mount, refugees and the ‘right of return’, and Israeli security concerns. On September 13, 2000, Yasser Arafat and the Palestinian Legislative Council postponed the planned unilateral declaration of an independent Palestinian state.
Current Day Situation
In recent decades, there have been important civil unrests in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, which culminated with the two Intifada (1987-1993, 2000-2005). After the death of Yasser Arafat, PLO split into two parts: Fatah and Hamas; Fatah governs the West Bank, while Hamas governs Gaza; Hamas is considered a terrorist organization by several countries. Israel Defence Forces recently permored several operations in the Gaza Strip, claiming that they responded to missile launches done by Hamas. During this time, both sides accused each other of war crimes, while Human Rights claimed that both sides committed human rights violations. The United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Germanyand other Western countries support the Israeli actions, while Iran, Russia , Egypt, Turkey and several other Arab and Muslim countries condemned them; the United Nations Security Council held an urgent meeting to address the issue but the results were inconclusive.
The United Nations General Assembly recognized the PLO as the “representative of the Palestinian people” in Resolution 3210 and Resolution 3236, and granted the PLO observer status on 22 November 1974 in Resolution 3237. On 12 January 1976 the UN Security Council voted 11–1 with 3 abstentions to allow the Palestinian Liberation Organization to participate in a Security Council debate without voting rights, a privilege usually restricted to UN member states. It was admitted as a full member of the Asia group on 2 April 1986. After the Palestinian Declaration of Independence the PLO’s representation was renamed Palestine. On 7 July 1998, this status was extended to allow participation in General Assembly debates, though not in voting. On Thursday, 29 November 2012, In a 138-9 vote (with 41 abstaining)
General Assembly resolution 67/19 passed, upgrading Palestine to “non-member observer state” status in the United Nations. The new status equates Palestine’s with that of the Holy See. The change in status was described by The Independent as “de facto recognition of the sovereign state of Palestine”. Recently, Anders Fogh Rasmussen mentioned several “big ifs”( if the parties involved came to an agreement, if they requested NATO to help them implement, If they requested NATO to help them implement, if there’s a UN Security Council Resolution) before the Israeli-Palestinian conflict could come to the NATO agenda. The European Union keeps a neutral stance to the conflict and encourages peace talks; in recent years, partly because of demographic changes which involve a growth in the number of Arab people, EU’s policy shifted slowly to the Arab side. Both parties have accused the UN Security Council of being biased he conflict to similar situations. A report by the United States Institute of Peace on UN reform was filed in 2005, which said contrary to the UN Charter’s principle of equality of rights for all nations, Israel is denied rights enjoyed by all other member states, and that a level of systematic hostility against it is routinely expressed. The bias against Israel within the UN has been claimed to deprive the country of its ability to exercise lawfully under the UN Charter. United States of America and its close allies have consistently supported Israel’s actions in the UN. The League of Arab States constantly condemns Israel; currently only two of its member states have recognized Israel, while most of them have not withdrawn the support for the ‘three NO’ policy. The United
Nations General Assembly recognized the PLO as the “representative of the Palestinian people” in Resolution 3210 and Resolution 3236, and granted the PLO observer status on 22 November 1974 in Resolution 3237. On 12 January 1976 the UN Security Council voted 11–1 with 3 abstentions to allow the Palestinian Liberation Organization to participate in a Security Council debate without voting rights, a privilege usually restricted to UN member states. It was admitted as a full member of the Asia group on 2 April 1986. After the Palestinian Declaration of Independence the PLO’s representation was renamed Palestine. On 7 July 1998, this status was extended to allow participation in General Assembly debates, though not in voting. On Thursday, 29 November 2012, In a 138-9 vote (with 41 abstaining) General Assembly resolution 67/19 passed, upgrading Palestine to “non-member observer state” status in the United Nations. The new status equates Palestine’s with that of the Holy See. The change in status was described by The Independent as “de facto recognition of the sovereign state of Palestine”.
The Western Bank is divided into 11 governorates. The Jenin governorate is the only governorate in the West Bank where the majority of control of land is under the Palestinian Authority. Four Israeli settlements were evacuated as a part of Israel’s unilateral disaragenent plan in 2005. The other 10 governorates are administrative districts of the Palestinian Authority. The Gaza Strip, on the other hand is primarily Hamasled. The Governance of Gaza Strip has been carried out by the Hamas administration, led by Ismail Haniyeh since 2007. The Hamas administration is often referred to as the Hamas government in Gaza. After the takeover in Gaza or Hamas on 14 June 2007, Palestinian Authority Chairman Abbas dismissed the Hamasled government and appointed Salam Fayad as Prime Minister. Though the new government’s authority is claimed to extend to all Palestinian territories, in effect it became limited to the West Bank, as Hamas hasn’t recognized the move and continued to rule the Gaza Strip. The Arab League is one of the main political actors directly involved in the conflict. While agreeing with UN Security Council Resolutions 242 and 383, they make more demands, essentially calling for full withdrawal by Israel “to the 1967 borders” (i.e., the 1949 Armistice lines ) in return for fully normalized relations with the whole Arab world. While most countries have recognized Israel’s independence, Afghanistan, Indonesia, North Korea, Algeria, Iraq, Pakistan, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bangladesh, Lebanon, Somalia, Brunei, Libya, Sudan, Comoros, Malaysia, Syria, Djibouti, United Arab Emirates, Maldives, Guinea, Mali, Yemen, Niger have never recognized it. Iran, Chad, Cuba, Morocco, Tunisia, Oman and Qatar recognized Israel, but have since rescinded that recognition.
And on the next article, I will post the Draft Resolutions that been made.
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